The Catalan nation was born in the tenth century when Count Borrell II of Barcelona failed to swear fealty to Hugh Capet, the first Capetian monarch of the emerging French kingdom.
One region of Spain that is certainly watching events in Catalonia with interest is the Basque Country, an "autonomous community" situated on the north coast of Spain. Spain may not survive. For many years, oppressive governments have argued that "these types" of western organizations are hypocrites, biased and too soft on European countries. It beat the sovereignty movement with patience, not truncheons. However Spain insists this is impossible and illegal. "I don't recognize the authority of this court over this", he said.
"I can do nothing but regret it, apologise on behalf of the officers who intervened", said the government's representative in Catalonia, Enric Millo. How would Ottawa react? Some protesters were holding up referendum ballot papers, with the presence of dozens of Spanish police in the area.
Trapero did not speak to reporters after he emerged from court.
"I stationed some girls down the road so they could warn us (if police came) and give us a five-minute head start".
It's almost impossible to imagine Ottawa using force to stop a provincial vote from taking place.
Catalans supporting self-determination clearly see themselves reflected in the Baltic States struggle for independence.
But flows into European equity funds exceeded $1 billion for the third week running as the region's economic recovery retained its momentum, EPFR added.
Like Catalonia, the Basque Country has its own language and distinct culture.
Spain's federalism, in contrast, is newer and weaker.
Despite the crackdown, some 2.26 million of Catalonia's 5.3 million registered voters managed to cast their ballots, according to figures released by the regional government, which said the turnout had been some 43 percent. We defend that the principle of territorial integrity, as defined above, must be respected so to ensure a durable and safe international order.
They come as secessionist parties in the Catalan parliament announced on Friday they are preparing an independence declaration to be submitted for ratification on Tuesday.
Both regions have strong separatist movements, mainly driven by resentment at the perception that taxpayers' money is spent in the poorer south of the country.
Local officials said they had formed a committee to help reassure companies unnerved by the prospect of a break from Spain, and answer questions about the region's current economic and political situation.
But that doesn't mean Ottawa would necessarily be bound by the results of a provincial referendum.
Instead of meeting a half-baked referendum with violence, Ottawa could meet it with a shrug. Spain maintains that the referendum was illegal. Nor does it make separation impossible. Security forces used batons and rubber bullets to disperse crowds of voters, wounding nearly 900 people.
It was win-win for Puigdemont, and lose-lose for the Spanish government. The regional leader has pledged independence will be declared within days. In this direction, consultation on October 22nd in Lombardy and Veneto envisions arrangement of a qualified referendum.