The rich mathematical field of feedback control theory sometimes provides a ready-to-use algorithm for the calculations comprising the "think" part of the feedback control loop.
Elon Musk's cherry-red Tesla Roadster, with a mannequin in the driver seat, was launched into space aboard the Falcon Heavy rocket Tuesday, and spent the next several hours beaming back pictures from the start of its billion-year orbit through the solar system.
The same principle is at work in the human body and can be mimicked by artificial organs, such as the artificial pancreas under development at the University of Newcastle by a team led by Professor Graham Goodwin. "I'll be happy, I'll consider it a win, if it clears the pad and doesn't blow the pad to smithereens".
What's all this mean for the space industry and policy makers? It can place a load of up to 64 tons in orbit.
So ... was the car bound for Mars?
The third and final "car" to land on the moon was the Apollo 17 rover, which astronauts Gene Cernan and Jack Schmitt used to cover the terrain while Ron Evans continued to orbit in the command module.
Seven minutes and 58 seconds after takeoff, the two lateral boosters returned to Cape Canaveral and landed simultaneously in a choreography that was much applauded by the crowd that had gathered in the area, as seen in the broadcast made by SpaceX by streaming.
As Musk said in the tweet above, the burn did indeed push the car and its passenger farther than expected. Delivering a Tesla into space was not necessary. They fired, burned up their fuel and then either fell into the ocean or burned up in the atmosphere as they fell back toward Earth.
According to LiveScience, the future is bleak for Musk's Tesla - especially as SpaceX is reportedly heading into the asteroid belt.
Over the past five or so years, Mr Musk has outlined varying plans and deadlines for his ultimate goal of sending humans to colonise the Red Planet. But I'm not convinced yet ... Don't panic, indeed. With any luck, they'll be so charmed they won't destroy humanity to build an intergalactic freeway bypass.
One day Earthlings may make it to Mars.
It'll reach its farthest point from the sun in November, and in September 2019, it will complete its first full loop around the sun.
"Bull story is 'people want these cars, ' but delays, competition and reliability likely to jeopardize this assumption", analysts at the research firm Hedgeye wrote in a note.
Gingrich, a Fox News contributor and former House speaker, said that the private sector is proving conventional wisdom incorrect. He told investors on February 7 that if SpaceX could manage to launch a Roadster into space, then the Model 3's manufacturing problems could be solved.
The launch itself, the views from the payload and the landing of the booster rockets. And even as Tesla boasts of growth on every other front, there's precious little to show for it in terms of operating leverage.
Now, before you go, check out video below.
But while a lot of his different projects contribute to scientific advancement (except maybe the flamethrowers) - one person thought he should be using his money for other causes. Musk's euphoria was undiminished as he shifted gears on Wednesday to Tesla, pointing to a silver lining for the high-flying carmaker that capped a year of big losses and production headaches for its critical Model 3 sedan. His company, with the cooperation of NASA, started to develop a new rocket, called the Falcon 9.